Rice is a fundamental cereal in the diet of the world’s population, espacially in Asia and Africa. Its development, aerial part structure, but also the quality and quantity of the grains produced are under strict genetic control. A better knowledge of its genome will then enable breeders to increase yields and create new varieties resistant to disease, drought or salinity. Rice has also become the model cereal for research on one of the two groups of flowering plants, the monocotyledonous crops.

  • Name: Oryza sativa L., cultivated rice of Asian origin (two subspecies, japonica and indica).
    Another species of African origin and grown only on this continent, Oryza glaberrima, is also being studied.
  • Phylogenetic classification: cereal, family Poaceae
  • Genome sequencing complete
  • Genome size : 389 Mbp, 12 chromosomes.
    Number of genes predicted: about 37,000.

Reproduction season: All year round in tropical climates.

Development cycle: 90-120 days.

Autogamous pollination: male and female reproductive organs are on the same flower (6 stamens and an ovary containing an egg). The development begins with the fertilization of the ovule by a male gamete from a pollen grain to form a zygote. The development of the plant then follows three phases: embryogenesis, a vegetative and a reproductive phases. Much of the plant structure is set during embryogenesis. The zygote undergoes several cell divisions without morphogenetic events. Afterwards, the main axis of the plant, its apical meristem and its root meristem are differentiated. The apical meristem is the site of intense cell division to allow the stem to grow while forming the axillary buds stacked alternately at a succession of nodes.

After germination of the seed, the plant undergoes a “vegetative development” and produces a stem of sheathed leaves. Subsequently, lateral stems of the plant form from the axillary buds on the nodes, in a process called tillering. Underground, the seminal root develops and produces lateral roots. The stem continues to grow and adventitious roots are produced at the nodes. Following a phase of elongation between nodes, the reproductive phase marks a change in the apical meristem identity: from vegetative meristem, it becomes inflorescential meristem, and the various reproductive organs are formed.

  • RNAi gene invalidation
  • Targeted gene invalidation by homologous recombination
  • Random mutagenesis, insertional mutagenesis (collections of rice insertion mutant lines available)
  • Bioinformatics
  • Genetic screening (such as TILLING to screen large mutant collections)
  • Transcriptomic analysis
  • Large quantity of microsatellite-type molecular markers
  • Identification of SNP-type polymorphisms
  • Core collections, population of segmental surrogate lines and population of recombinant lines
  • UMR Biologie et Génétique des Interactions Plante-Parasite (BGPI) - Cirad/INRAE/Montpellier SupAgro
  • http://umr-bgpi.cirad.fr/
  • Montpellier
  • Articles

« Rice Plant Development: from Zygote to Spikelet », Jun-Ichi Itoh et al., Plant Cell Physiol, 2005

« Genome-wide association studies of 14 agronomic traits in rice landraces », Huang et al., Nature Genetics , 2010

  • Websites

male-enhancement-pills   penis-enlargement-medicine   best-penis-enlargement-pills   male-enhancement-pills-that-work   penis-pills   best-erection-pills   penis-enlarger   penis-enlargment   best-sex-drugs   evermax-pill   penis-enlargements   hard-on-pills-that-work   enhanced-male-pills   male enhancement   penis extender   best male enhancement pills   penis enlargement medicine   best male enhancement   penis stretcher   penis enlargement pills   extenze reviews   penis extenders   sex pills   how to produce more sperm   extenze review   extenze male enhancement   male enhancement pills that work   bathmate results   male enlargement pills   male extra   extenze pills   how to increase semen volume   increase sperm volume   penis pills   volume pills   male enhancement pills that work fast   increase semen volume   bathmate before and after   best penis enlargement pills   male enhancement pill   penis enhancement   penis pump before and after   how to increase sperm volume   best budget penis pumps   enhanced male   best erection pills   bathmate review   best penis pumps   penis traction   how to produce more cum   male enhancement products   3 ways to increase seminal fluid   male enhancement pills over the counter   penis pump results   increase ejaculate   best sex pills   male enhancement reviews   how to produce more semen   dick pills   sex pills for men   penis enlargement pill   how to increase ejaculate volume   how to increase ejaculate   extenze side effects   huge ejaculation   penis enlargement pump   water penis pump   male enhancement supplements   do penis enlargement pills work   increase semen   bath mate   penis pump reviews   penis growth pills   best male enhancement pill   bathmate routine   size genetics   male supplements   male enlargement   male extra reviews   the best male enhancement pills over the counter   how fast does extenze work   how to ejaculate more   extenze results   penile extender   bathmate x30   max performer   best penis extender   bathmate reviews   semen volume   extenze extended release   penis pumps   dick enlargement   how long does it take for extenze to work   dick pumps   penile traction   big loads   best male enhancement pills that work   increase sperm volume pills   extenze pill   best male enlargement pills   male sex pills   penis strecher   home made penis pump   dick extender   cum pills   natural ways to increase seminal fluid   best penis enlargement   penis pump before after   penile traction device   best over the counter male enhancement   over the counter male enhancement pills   male extra review   vigrx plus review   does bathmate work   extenze directions   best penis   penis enlargement pills that work   volume pill   sex pill   male enhancer   increase cum   extenze ingredients   semen volumizer   increase semen production   do male enhancement pills work   enhancement pills   vigrx pills   penis enlargment pills   stamina pills   are penis pumps safe   cock pumps   darren jackson   best natural male enhancement   penis stretchers   best penis enlargement medicine   male enhancement drugs   how to increase sperm thickness   where to buy vigrx plus   best sex pills over the counter   sexual enhancement pills   increase ejaculation   increase cum volume   sexual enhancement   penis enhancers   hard on pills that work   enhancement male pill   extenze ingridients   extenze befor and after   malextra pills   extenz results   penis enlargements pumps   extenze ingredience   male enhancement pills   penis enlargement medicines   volumepills review   penis extender result   extenze ingredient   penis pump review   how to increase ejaculation volume   cock extenders   penis enlargement devices   vigrex tablets   how to increase semen amount   male performance pills   bathmate hydro   how to increase cum load   penis extenders reviews   best male enhancers   how to increase semen production   how to produce more seminal fluid   bathmate x40   male drive max   increase cum load   bathmate before after   volume increaser   produce more sperm   best male enhancement pills over the counter   max load pills   volume pills review   natural male enhancement herbs   delay pills for men last longer   cock stretcher   enhanced male pil   male enhancement pills free trials   penispumps   penis enlargement device   male sexual enhancement   extend pills   sex enhancement pills   all natural male enhancement   long sex pill   best male supplement   extenze maximum strength   do penis pills work   produce more semen   how to produce more seminal fluid naturally   increasing semen volume   penis extenders review   how to increase semen   best male enhancement pills 2019   male enhancement pills reviews   increase ejaculate volume   bathmate hydro pump   increase seminal fluid   natural male enhancement pills   hydro penis pump   vigrx reviews   do penis extenders work   over the counter male enhancement   male enhancements   top male enhancement pills   penis traction device   bathmate pump