The economic and scientific importance of cereals motivates active research into their genetics, development and evolution. Maize Zea mays (known as “Corn” in American english) is an annual herbaceous tropical plant of the Poaceae family. It is widely cultivated as a cereal for its starchy grains, but also as a fodder plant. In science, maize is commonly used as a model organism in many disciplines, including developmental biology, genetics and epigenetics.

Given the economic stakes it represents at the global level and particularly in the United States, maize is a privileged field of application for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Indeed, technical progress allows to develop transgenic varieties by incorporating into the genome genes encoding specific traits such as resistance to certain insect pests or herbicides. These genetically modified varieties are the subject of major debates at the global or European level, particularly in France.

  • Name: Zea mays
  • Phylogenetic classification: cereal of the Poaceae family
  • Genome sequencing complete (2009)
  • Genome size: 2,6 billion bp on 10 pairs of chromosomes.
    Number of genes: about 60,000.

Flowers are unisexual and arranged in male and female inflorescences. The female flowers are arranged in ears inserted in the axils of the median (largest) leaves. The axis of the ear (called a cob) bears 8 to 20 rows of female flowers. An ear may contain about 500 to 1,000 mature kernels (seeds). A plant can produce three or four ears, but only one usually achieves full development at the usual seeding densities. Male flowers are grouped in a terminal panicle that appears after the last leaf. This panicle consists of spikelets each containing two flowers with three stamens.

A maize seed is made up of three parts of different origins:

– the embryo, referred to as the “germ”, located at the seed’s basis. It comprises the proper embryo and the scutellum (i.e. the cotyledon), the storage organ from which the seedling draws its initial supply of energy. The embryo is derived from the egg formed from the fusion of the nucleus of a sperm cell and the oosphere,

– the albumen, a nutritive tissue, essentially composed of starch grains, except for the peripheral layer under the pericarp which contains protein-rich aleurone grains. This tissue results from the fusion of the nucleus of a sperm cell and the two nuclei of the central cell (thus a triploid tissue),

– the outer envelope, a thin, translucent, fibrous membrane from the pericarp of the ovary (thus part of the fruit and not the seed).

  • Collections of populations, lines and natural mutants (approx. 10,000 lines) or produced by par EMS mutagenesis, or insertional mutagenesis (transposon insertion)
  • Trangenesis
  • EST libraries
  • Transcriptomic analyses
  • U.M.R. de Génétique Végétale du Moulon, équipe Génétique Quantitative et Méthodologie de la Sélection, Gif-sur-Yvette
  • Articles

« The art and design of genetic screens: maize », Héctor Candela and Sarah Hake, nature review genetics, 2008

« Grains of knowledge: Genomics of model cereals » Andrew H. Paterson, Michael Freeling and Takuji Sasaki, Genome Research, 2005

« Of genes and genomes and the origin of maize », Shawn White and John Doebley, Trends in genetics,1998

  • Websites

male-enhancement-pills   penis-enlargement-medicine   best-penis-enlargement-pills   male-enhancement-pills-that-work   penis-pills   best-erection-pills   penis-enlarger   penis-enlargment   best-sex-drugs   evermax-pill   penis-enlargements   hard-on-pills-that-work   enhanced-male-pills   male enhancement   penis extender   best male enhancement pills   penis enlargement medicine   best male enhancement   penis stretcher   penis enlargement pills   extenze reviews   penis extenders   sex pills   how to produce more sperm   extenze review   extenze male enhancement   male enhancement pills that work   bathmate results   male enlargement pills   male extra   extenze pills   how to increase semen volume   increase sperm volume   penis pills   volume pills   male enhancement pills that work fast   increase semen volume   bathmate before and after   best penis enlargement pills   male enhancement pill   penis enhancement   penis pump before and after   how to increase sperm volume   best budget penis pumps   enhanced male   best erection pills   bathmate review   best penis pumps   penis traction   how to produce more cum   male enhancement products   3 ways to increase seminal fluid   male enhancement pills over the counter   penis pump results   increase ejaculate   best sex pills   male enhancement reviews   how to produce more semen   dick pills   sex pills for men   penis enlargement pill   how to increase ejaculate volume   how to increase ejaculate   extenze side effects   huge ejaculation   penis enlargement pump   water penis pump   male enhancement supplements   do penis enlargement pills work   increase semen   bath mate   penis pump reviews   penis growth pills   best male enhancement pill   bathmate routine   size genetics   male supplements   male enlargement   male extra reviews   the best male enhancement pills over the counter   how fast does extenze work   how to ejaculate more   extenze results   penile extender   bathmate x30   max performer   best penis extender   bathmate reviews   semen volume   extenze extended release   penis pumps   dick enlargement   how long does it take for extenze to work   dick pumps   penile traction   big loads   best male enhancement pills that work   increase sperm volume pills   extenze pill   best male enlargement pills   male sex pills   penis strecher   home made penis pump   dick extender   cum pills   natural ways to increase seminal fluid   best penis enlargement   penis pump before after   penile traction device   best over the counter male enhancement   over the counter male enhancement pills   male extra review   vigrx plus review   does bathmate work   extenze directions   best penis   penis enlargement pills that work   volume pill   sex pill   male enhancer   increase cum   extenze ingredients   semen volumizer   increase semen production   do male enhancement pills work   enhancement pills   vigrx pills   penis enlargment pills   stamina pills   are penis pumps safe   cock pumps   darren jackson   best natural male enhancement   penis stretchers   best penis enlargement medicine   male enhancement drugs   how to increase sperm thickness   where to buy vigrx plus   best sex pills over the counter   sexual enhancement pills   increase ejaculation   increase cum volume   sexual enhancement   penis enhancers   hard on pills that work   enhancement male pill   extenze ingridients   extenze befor and after   malextra pills   extenz results   penis enlargements pumps   extenze ingredience   male enhancement pills   penis enlargement medicines   volumepills review   penis extender result   extenze ingredient   penis pump review   how to increase ejaculation volume   cock extenders   penis enlargement devices   vigrex tablets   how to increase semen amount   male performance pills   bathmate hydro   how to increase cum load   penis extenders reviews   best male enhancers   how to increase semen production   how to produce more seminal fluid   bathmate x40   male drive max   increase cum load   bathmate before after   volume increaser   produce more sperm   best male enhancement pills over the counter   max load pills   volume pills review   natural male enhancement herbs   delay pills for men last longer   cock stretcher   enhanced male pil   male enhancement pills free trials   penispumps   penis enlargement device   male sexual enhancement   extend pills   sex enhancement pills   all natural male enhancement   long sex pill   best male supplement   extenze maximum strength   do penis pills work   produce more semen   how to produce more seminal fluid naturally   increasing semen volume   penis extenders review   how to increase semen   best male enhancement pills 2019   male enhancement pills reviews   increase ejaculate volume   bathmate hydro pump   increase seminal fluid   natural male enhancement pills   hydro penis pump   vigrx reviews   do penis extenders work   over the counter male enhancement   male enhancements   top male enhancement pills   penis traction device   bathmate pump