What is a model organism ?

A model organism is a species studied with the objective of deciphering particular biological processes. The relevance of the choice of the model species is based on the following criteria:

  • 1 - The results obtained must be at least partially transferable to other species;
  • 2 - It is necessary to have sufficient knowledge of the reproductive cycle of this species in order to obtain a representative panel;
  • 3 - This species must present a range of experimental tools to carry out the investigations and answer the biological question raised.

The 3R: Reduce, Refine and Replace rules

Animal welfare is an important concern of research actors, and new regulations to control and limit the use of animal experimentation have emerged in recent years.


The number of animals used for the experiment is determined before the protocol, and should correspond to the strict minimum necessary to validate the study.


This rule aims to improve the living conditions of laboratory animals, as well as to reduce their stress and pain.


If the study allows it, replace in vivo experiments with experiments on tissues or cells grown in vitro.

When in vitro experiments are not possible (for example, to study the impact of a molecule on an entire organism), the substitution of a sensitive organism by a organism known less sensitive to the conditions of experimentation is preferred.

European and French legislation


Based on Directive 2010/63 of the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, Decree 2013-118 on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes is the reference text in France.


Directive 2010/63 of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union defines the regulatory framework for the application of scientific work involving animal experimentation.

Five more decrees have been added regarding:

French associations on animal welfare in Science

The AFSTAL : The French Association of Laboratory Animal Science and Technology (AFSTAL) brings together people working in all fields related to laboratory animals (zootechnicians, technicians, biologists, breeders…) and aims at answering current questions about animal experimentation. AFSTAL also proposes exchange days (Com’Tech, Com’Vet, Com’Prim) that can be used for the continuous training of personnel handling animals.

The Gircor : Gircor aims at informing the public about the real conditions of the use of animal experimentation in biomedical research work.

OPAL : The Association for Experimental Research and Protection of Laboratory Animals (OPAL) promotes and supports any action in favour of laboratory animals welfare and respect, like the development of alternatives methods of study.

male-enhancement-pills   penis-enlargement-medicine   best-penis-enlargement-pills   male-enhancement-pills-that-work   penis-pills   best-erection-pills   penis-enlarger   penis-enlargment   best-sex-drugs   evermax-pill   penis-enlargements   hard-on-pills-that-work   enhanced-male-pills   male enhancement   penis extender   best male enhancement pills   penis enlargement medicine   best male enhancement   penis stretcher   penis enlargement pills   extenze reviews   penis extenders   sex pills   how to produce more sperm   extenze review   extenze male enhancement   male enhancement pills that work   bathmate results   male enlargement pills   male extra   extenze pills   how to increase semen volume   increase sperm volume   penis pills   volume pills   male enhancement pills that work fast   increase semen volume   bathmate before and after   best penis enlargement pills   male enhancement pill   penis enhancement   penis pump before and after   how to increase sperm volume   best budget penis pumps   enhanced male   best erection pills   bathmate review   best penis pumps   penis traction   how to produce more cum   male enhancement products   3 ways to increase seminal fluid   male enhancement pills over the counter   penis pump results   increase ejaculate   best sex pills   male enhancement reviews   how to produce more semen   dick pills   sex pills for men   penis enlargement pill   how to increase ejaculate volume   how to increase ejaculate   extenze side effects   huge ejaculation   penis enlargement pump   water penis pump   male enhancement supplements   do penis enlargement pills work   increase semen   bath mate   penis pump reviews   penis growth pills   best male enhancement pill   bathmate routine   size genetics   male supplements   male enlargement   male extra reviews   the best male enhancement pills over the counter   how fast does extenze work   how to ejaculate more   extenze results   penile extender   bathmate x30   max performer   best penis extender   bathmate reviews   semen volume   extenze extended release   penis pumps   dick enlargement   how long does it take for extenze to work   dick pumps   penile traction   big loads   best male enhancement pills that work   increase sperm volume pills   extenze pill   best male enlargement pills   male sex pills   penis strecher   home made penis pump   dick extender   cum pills   natural ways to increase seminal fluid   best penis enlargement   penis pump before after   penile traction device   best over the counter male enhancement   over the counter male enhancement pills   male extra review   vigrx plus review   does bathmate work   extenze directions   best penis   penis enlargement pills that work   volume pill   sex pill   male enhancer   increase cum   extenze ingredients   semen volumizer   increase semen production   do male enhancement pills work   enhancement pills   vigrx pills   penis enlargment pills   stamina pills   are penis pumps safe   cock pumps   darren jackson   best natural male enhancement   penis stretchers   best penis enlargement medicine   male enhancement drugs   how to increase sperm thickness   where to buy vigrx plus   best sex pills over the counter   sexual enhancement pills   increase ejaculation   increase cum volume   sexual enhancement   penis enhancers   hard on pills that work   enhancement male pill   extenze ingridients   extenze befor and after   malextra pills   extenz results   penis enlargements pumps   extenze ingredience   male enhancement pills   penis enlargement medicines   volumepills review   penis extender result   extenze ingredient   penis pump review   how to increase ejaculation volume   cock extenders   penis enlargement devices   vigrex tablets   how to increase semen amount   male performance pills   bathmate hydro   how to increase cum load   penis extenders reviews   best male enhancers   how to increase semen production   how to produce more seminal fluid   bathmate x40   male drive max   increase cum load   bathmate before after   volume increaser   produce more sperm   best male enhancement pills over the counter   max load pills   volume pills review   natural male enhancement herbs   delay pills for men last longer   cock stretcher   enhanced male pil   male enhancement pills free trials   penispumps   penis enlargement device   male sexual enhancement   extend pills   sex enhancement pills   all natural male enhancement   long sex pill   best male supplement   extenze maximum strength   do penis pills work   produce more semen   how to produce more seminal fluid naturally   increasing semen volume   penis extenders review   how to increase semen   best male enhancement pills 2019   male enhancement pills reviews   increase ejaculate volume   bathmate hydro pump   increase seminal fluid   natural male enhancement pills   hydro penis pump   vigrx reviews   do penis extenders work   over the counter male enhancement   male enhancements   top male enhancement pills   penis traction device   bathmate pump