Pigs

The domestic pig and the wild pig or boar both belong to the species Sus Scrofa. The domestic pig is classified as Sus scrofa domestica and the most common wild boar as Sus scrofa scrofa. Domestic pigs and wild boar are interspecific. They differ in the number of chromosomes: 36 for wild boar and 38 for domestic pigs.

The pig was domesticated following the sedentarisation of human and the appearance of agriculture about 10,000 years ago. The domestic pig is a species of economic and biomedical interest. It is a model of human health due to the existence of anatomical and physiological characteristics comparable to those of humans: skin structure, response to atherogenic diets, cardiovascular anatomy, urinary system, kidney anatomy and function. The anatomical and physiological properties of organs such as the liver, pancreas, kidney and heart make the pig an animal of recognized interest for xenotransplantation. The gastrointestinal anatomy of pigs differs from humans, but as digestive processes are similar, pigs make interesting models for the study of digestive pathologies. There are breeds of miniature pigs (Yucatan, Hanford, Gottingen) that are valuable in experimental protocols where the size of the farm animals would be an obstacle.

Reproduction
Pigs reach sexual maturity very early at about 6 months of age and can reproduce throughout the year. Gestation time averages 115 days. A sow can have two litters per year and gives birth to up to a dozen piglets per litter. Some lines described as very prolific can give birth to 18 piglets per litter. The gestating sow has an epithelio-chorionic placentation that limits the exchanges between maternal and fetal blood. A pig has a life expectancy of 25 years.
Tools
  • Breeding capacity under controlled conditions, SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) facilities
  • BAC libraries
  • Cell transfection
  • Transgenesis
  • Physical, genetic, cytogenetic and irradiation hybrid maps
  • DNA chips
  • Microsatellites, SNPs
  • Chips 60K SNP available
  • Antibodies
Databases
Generalities
  • Name : Sus scrofa domestica (domestic pig), Sus scrofa scrofa (wild boar)
  • Phylogenetic classification : mammals, family Suidae
  • Genome sequenced (Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium (SGSC) 2003; Groenen et al, 2012)
  • Genome size : 2,7 Gb 2n = 38 chromosomes
Fields
Infrastructures
Experts
  • Claire ROGEL-GAILLARD
  • claire.rogel-gaillard@jouy.inra.fr
  • INRA/AgroParisTech, UMR1313, Laboratoire de Génétique Animale et Biologie Intégrative, équipe INRA-CEA Génétique Immunité Santé, Jouy-en-Josas
Bibliography
  • Articles

″Application of genetically modified and cloned pigs in translational research″, Matsunari H, Nagashima H. 2009. J Reprod Dev. 2009 55(3):225-30

″Design of a High Density SNP Genotyping Assay in the Pig Using SNPs Identified and Characterized by Next Generation Sequencing Technology.″, Ramos et al. 2009. PLoS ONE 4(8): e6524

″Nomenclature for factors of the SLA system, update 2008.″, Ho CS, Lunney JK, Ando A, Rogel-Gaillard C, Lee JH, Schook LB, Smith DM. 2009,. Tissue Antigens 73(4):307-15

″Advances in swine biomedical model genomics.″, Lunney JK. 2007. Int J Biol Sci 3: 179-184

″Creating porcine biomedical models through recombineering.″, Rogatcheva MM, Rund LA, Swanson KS, Marron BM, Beever JE, Counter CM, Schook LB. 2004. Comp Funct Genomics 5(3):262-7

″Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium (SGSC): A strategic roadmap for sequencing the pig genome.″, Schook LB, Beever JE, Rogers J, Humphray S, Archibald A, Chardon P, Milan D, Rohrer G, Eversole K. 2005. Comp Funct Genomics 6(4):251-5

″Clinical and histopathological characterization of cutaneous melanomas in the melanoblastoma-bearing Libechov minipig model.″, Vincent-Naulleau S, Le Chalony C, Leplat JJ, Bouet S, Bailly C, Spatz A, Vielh P, Avril MF, Tricaud Y, Gruand J, Horak V, Frelat G, Geffrotin C. 2004. Pigment Cell Res 17(1): 24-35

  • Other ressources

Animals :

– Breeds of domestic pigs: Genetics and Experimentation in Animal Production, INRA

– Atherosclerosis line: animals with spontaneous atherosclerosis, Genetics and Experimentation in Animal Production, INRA

– MeLiM line: Animals with a genetic susceptibility to skin melanoma, UMR1313 de Génétique Animale et Biologie Intégrative, INRA

– Homozygous minipigs for the MHC dd haplotype : UR Infectiologie Animale et Santé Publique, INRA

Experimental surgery :

Unité de Physiologie, reproduction et comportement, INRA, Tours

Transplantations :

Plateforme de chirurgie du Magneraud

BAC libraries :

– CRB GADIE, Jouy-en-Josas, France : Clone distribution, PCR screening
– BACPAC resources center

USA chips SNP :

PorcineSNP60 Genotyping BeadChip

Irradiation hybrids (RH) :

IMPRH, INRA : Distribution du panel et outil de cartographie RH

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