Rose

Rosa species are one of the most economically important ornamental plants. Their popularity as garden flowers and cut flowers, but also their use for cosmetics and perfume industry, is constantly increasing. The Rosa genus includes about 150 perennial species and shows a great diversity of ploidy levels. (di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, octo-, decaploid).

It has a small genome (about 560 MB or 4 times the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana), and international effort is underway to achieve its complete sequencing. The rose has a relatively short life cycle for a perennial plant (one year after germination of the seeds, the seedlings can flower) and its genealogy is well documented. Several teams around the world, particularly in France, are studying the molecular and genetic bases that govern certain characteristics of this plant, such as flowering date, flower shape and colour, vase life for the cut flower, resistance to pathogens and perfume.

These molecular and genetic data, as well as the development of genetics tools for the rose, make it a model of choice for ornamental plants.

Reproduction

Roses are self-incompatible. Pollination is entomogamous (meaning pollen is mainly carried by insects). The stamens are numerous and the carpels are inserted on a hollow receptacle, the hypanthium, which protects them and allows the styles and stigmas to emerge.
After fertilization, the carpels evolve into achenes, contained in the fleshy rosehip, resulting from the evolution of the hypanthium. Interspecific hybridization is frequent in nature and most polyploid species are derived from it, and for these we speak of an allopolyploid origin.

Ploidy differences are an important barrier to varietal improvement, since most cultivated varieties are tetraploid, which is a barrier to the introgression (dispersion of genes from one species to another, since the two are interfecund) of traits of interest from wild diploid species.

In nature, vegetative propagation is common. It takes place through the emission of specialized stems, the suckers, which, after the plant that emitted them has been freed, give an independent clone. The rose’s ability to be cut (vegetative propagation) is widely exploited for its industrial multiplication, as is the possibility of grafting an axillary bud onto a rootstock.

Tools
  • Crossbreed populations from several varieties of Roses
  • EST database (genes expressed during flower induction and during flower development)
  • Gene mapping
  • Collection of several species and varieties (Lyon and Lyon Botanical Garden)
  • Genetic transformation protocols (in particular diploid rose; Vergne et al., 2010)
  • In situ hybridization (Dubois et al., 2010)
  • High speed microarray (Affymetrix, 5,000 gènes) (Dubois et al., 2011)
  • RNAi (functional analysis of genes of interest by expression of interfering RNA)
Databases
Generalities
  • Name: Rosa sp.
  • Phylogenetic classification: Rosaceae family, Rosoideae subfamily.
  • Genome sequenced depending on species (e.g. Rosa chinensis sequenced in 2018 (Raymond et al.), Rosa multiflora sequenced in 2018 (Nakamura et al.))
  • Genome size: Approximately 560 million base pairs, varies slightly between species.
    Number of genes predicted: Between 30,000 and 35,000 genes.
Fields
Infrastructures
Experts
  • Manuel LE BRIS
  • manuel.lebris@imbe.fr
  • Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie marine et continentale UMR CNRS7263 IRD237 AMU UAPV Marseille
  • Mohammed BENDAHMANE
  • mbendahm@ens-lyon.fr
  • Laboratoire Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, UMR INRA978 CNRS5667 UCBL ENS-Lyon, Lyon
Bibliography
  • Books

« Genomic and Breeding Resources: Plantation and Ornamental Crops, Rose. » Smulders et. al., C. Kole (ed.), Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources Plantation and Ornamental Crops, 2011.

« Encyclopedia of Rose science » Roberts et. al., Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1450pp, 2003.

  • Articles

« Genomic approach to study floral development genes in Rosa sp. », Dubois et. al., PLoS ONE, 2011

« Polyploidisation mechanisms: Temperature can induce diploid gamete formation in Rosa sp. », – Pecrix et. al., J Exp Bot., 2011

« Tinkering with the C-function: A molecular frame for the selection of double flowers in cultivated roses. », Dubois et. al., PLoS ONE , 2010

« Versatile somatic embryogenesis systems and transformation methods for the diploid rose genotype Rosa chinensis cv Old Blush. », Vergne et. al., Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult., 2010

« Scent evolution in Chinese roses. », Scalliet et. al., Proc Natl Acad Sci., 2008

« Analysis of gene expression in rose petals using expressed sequence tags. » Channeliere et. al., FEBS Letters, 2002

  • Websites

male-enhancement-pills   penis-enlargement-medicine   best-penis-enlargement-pills   male-enhancement-pills-that-work   penis-pills   best-erection-pills   penis-enlarger   penis-enlargment   best-sex-drugs   evermax-pill   penis-enlargements   hard-on-pills-that-work   enhanced-male-pills   male enhancement   penis extender   best male enhancement pills   penis enlargement medicine   best male enhancement   penis stretcher   penis enlargement pills   extenze reviews   penis extenders   sex pills   how to produce more sperm   extenze review   extenze male enhancement   male enhancement pills that work   bathmate results   male enlargement pills   male extra   extenze pills   how to increase semen volume   increase sperm volume   penis pills   volume pills   male enhancement pills that work fast   increase semen volume   bathmate before and after   best penis enlargement pills   male enhancement pill   penis enhancement   penis pump before and after   how to increase sperm volume   best budget penis pumps   enhanced male   best erection pills   bathmate review   best penis pumps   penis traction   how to produce more cum   male enhancement products   3 ways to increase seminal fluid   male enhancement pills over the counter   penis pump results   increase ejaculate   best sex pills   male enhancement reviews   how to produce more semen   dick pills   sex pills for men   penis enlargement pill   how to increase ejaculate volume   how to increase ejaculate   extenze side effects   huge ejaculation   penis enlargement pump   water penis pump   male enhancement supplements   do penis enlargement pills work   increase semen   bath mate   penis pump reviews   penis growth pills   best male enhancement pill   bathmate routine   size genetics   male supplements   male enlargement   male extra reviews   the best male enhancement pills over the counter   how fast does extenze work   how to ejaculate more   extenze results   penile extender   bathmate x30   max performer   best penis extender   bathmate reviews   semen volume   extenze extended release   penis pumps   dick enlargement   how long does it take for extenze to work   dick pumps   penile traction   big loads   best male enhancement pills that work   increase sperm volume pills   extenze pill   best male enlargement pills   male sex pills   penis strecher   home made penis pump   dick extender   cum pills   natural ways to increase seminal fluid   best penis enlargement   penis pump before after   penile traction device   best over the counter male enhancement   over the counter male enhancement pills   male extra review   vigrx plus review   does bathmate work   extenze directions   best penis   penis enlargement pills that work   volume pill   sex pill   male enhancer   increase cum   extenze ingredients   semen volumizer   increase semen production   do male enhancement pills work   enhancement pills   vigrx pills   penis enlargment pills   stamina pills   are penis pumps safe   cock pumps   darren jackson   best natural male enhancement   penis stretchers   best penis enlargement medicine   male enhancement drugs   how to increase sperm thickness   where to buy vigrx plus   best sex pills over the counter   sexual enhancement pills   increase ejaculation   increase cum volume   sexual enhancement   penis enhancers   hard on pills that work   enhancement male pill   extenze ingridients   extenze befor and after   malextra pills   extenz results   penis enlargements pumps   extenze ingredience   male enhancement pills   penis enlargement medicines   volumepills review   penis extender result   extenze ingredient   penis pump review   how to increase ejaculation volume   cock extenders   penis enlargement devices   vigrex tablets   how to increase semen amount   male performance pills   bathmate hydro   how to increase cum load   penis extenders reviews   best male enhancers   how to increase semen production   how to produce more seminal fluid   bathmate x40   male drive max   increase cum load   bathmate before after   volume increaser   produce more sperm   best male enhancement pills over the counter   max load pills   volume pills review   natural male enhancement herbs   delay pills for men last longer   cock stretcher   enhanced male pil   male enhancement pills free trials   penispumps   penis enlargement device   male sexual enhancement   extend pills   sex enhancement pills   all natural male enhancement   long sex pill   best male supplement   extenze maximum strength   do penis pills work   produce more semen   how to produce more seminal fluid naturally   increasing semen volume   penis extenders review   how to increase semen   best male enhancement pills 2019   male enhancement pills reviews   increase ejaculate volume   bathmate hydro pump   increase seminal fluid   natural male enhancement pills   hydro penis pump   vigrx reviews   do penis extenders work   over the counter male enhancement   male enhancements   top male enhancement pills   penis traction device   bathmate pump