Astyanax mexicanus

Astyanax mexicanus, also known as Mexican Tetra, is a freshwater fish of the Characidae family native to Central America. The surface and cave forms of the Mexican Tetra are used as models of morphological and behavioural micro-evolution. Some 30 caves are home to populations of cave-dwelling Astyanax mexicanus, divided into 3 geographical groups, possibly representing a case of convergent evolution.

Cave populations lost their eyes and pigmentation (adaptation to their habitat in total and permanent darkness), but developed other traits considered adaptive to cave life, in particular olfactory sensory compensations and lateral line. They also developed many behavioural traits grouped under the term “Cavernicolous Astyanax Behavioural Syndrome”, craniofacial changes, physiological changes, etc.

The two morphs of the species allow the study of the micro-evolution of development (evo-devo) underlying morphological evolution. Their cross-breeding allows quantitative genetic studies (QTL) to understand the genetic determinism of the evolution of traits. Comparative and functional genomics allows to understand the dynamics of molecular evolution, and to estimate the contributions of selection and genetic drift in the evolution of cave fish.

Reproduction

Oviparous teleost.

External fertilization.

Sexual maturity reached at 6-8 months.

Tools
  • Development table
  • Morpholino knock-down
  • Meganuclease mediated transgenesis
  • Tol2
  • CRISPER
  • Crossing of the two morphs
Databases

Génome Pachon cavefish :

https://www.ensembl.org/Astyanax_mexicanus_pachon/Info/Index

Génome Surface fish

Banque génomique, banques cDNA

Generalities
  • Name : Astyanax mexicanus
  • Phylogenetic classification: family Characidae
  • Genome sequencing : complete
Fields
Infrastructures
  • Equipe S. Rétaux, Gif sur Yvette : élevage, reproduction, croisements, édition de génome sur les populations Pachon (cavernicole) et Surface (origine Texas) de l’espèce, depuis 2004
  • https://neuropsi.cnrs.fr/fr/decs/sylvie-retaux/
  • Gif-sur-Yvette
  • Equipe Y. Guiguen, Rennes : élevage des populations Pachon (cavernicole) et Surface (origine Texas)
  • Rennes
Experts
  • Sylvie RETAUX
  • retaux@inaf.cnrs-gif.fr
  • Equipe Développement et Evolution du Cerveau Antérieur, Institut de Neuroscience Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette
Bibliography
  • Livres

The Biology and Evolution of the Mexican Cavefish. Eds AC Keen, M Yoshizawa, SE McGaugh. Elsevier, Academic Press.

  • Articles
« Shh and forebrain evolution in the blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus »
Retaux S., Pottin K, Alunni A., Biology of the cell, 2008
  • Ressources web

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